Critique a student learning styles survey. The goal is to
evaluate a survey for quality information. Use the questions below as a guide
to determine survey usefulness and assistance in determining learning styles,
school culture, and attitude. Use the “Learning Style Surveys” to
complete assignment. Students may also select an alternative survey (not listed
on the resource) to evaluate. Write a critique/essay of 1,000–1,250 words in
which you address the questions below:

Who are the respondents?

Who are the investigators?

Are the respondents capable of answering the survey?

What is the purpose of the survey?

Is the survey a valid method of gathering information?

Are the questions meaningful and appropriate?

How was the data analyzed?

What did the survey reveal?

Would you add or eliminate questions?

What biases may have affected how the data is gathered,
analyzed, and presented?

This is a summary of a learning style survey. You do not
need to administer the survey, just use the survey resources to answer the
questions. Some of the information will not be spelled out for you in the
survey or the information that accompanies it. But, you should be able to infer
the information from these sources.

Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines. An
abstract is not required.

Learning Style Surveys

Elementary School Climate Survey

Learning Style Survey


What’s Your Learning Style

Safe and Civil Schools Student Survey

Here is the lecture:

Contributors and Patterns to Learning Disabilities


Learning disabilities manifest from many contributing
factors such as brain injuries, underdevelopment before and after birth, and
heritability influences. Patterns of the brain were analyzed to determine
deficits and it appears to be one of the most appropriate ways to meet the
needs of learning disabled students. Additionally, home and school factors were
used as indicators to determine services and avoid the regression of learning
disabled students. Matching the curriculum to the students learning style while
becoming culturally competent helped reduced the impact of learning
disabilities in some cases. The most powerful contributing factors that affect
academic achievement are language, phonological-processing and attention,
visual-perception, and motor difficulties.

Physiological Differences

Over the years, researchers have found a great amount of
information about the connections between the brain, learning, and behavior.
Smith (2004) discovered that for average performing children, brain asymmetry
is balanced. Depending on what part of the brain dominates performance,
learning can be predictable. When all parts of the brain work harmoniously,
learning is considered typical. When there is less activity in the brain waves,
learning takes place at a slower rate. Some parts of the brain are
underdeveloped or overused, causing patterns of weaknesses and inability to
learn at a typical pace. Injury to the brain has also been attributed to poor
learning patterns. These injuries may result before, during, or after birth.
Prenatal factors range from maternal health concerns to disease that affects
the fetus. Injuries during birth result from difficulties mothers experience
while in labor. Finally, postnatal injuries can occur from illnesses, disease,
and insult to the brain. Many injuries may result in brain deficiencies, but
the impact it has on learning remains open for more specific answers due to
barriers that occur when linking indicators with disabilities.

Differences: Structural and Hereditary

Some children have abnormalities in their brains due to
deficiencies in development. The atypical development can be inherited and
passed down from one family member to the next. Twins are more susceptible for
similar learning abilities and a child’s learning potential will most likely be
inherited according to Smith (as stated by Plomin, DeFries, McClearn, and
McGuffin, (2004). The environment greatly influences a child’s learning
capabilities and although the IQ is inherited, it can be increased by
stimulation from the environment. Biochemical irregularities have also been
linked to brain injuries, including attention and hyperactivity disorders. Over
the years, instances of attention deficits in children have become more
prevalent. Even though Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is
linked to brain development, accurate measurement of biochemicals cannot be
determined according to Smith (as noted by Plomin et al.). Fortunately, there
are medications to help students by redirecting stimuli in the brain.

Contributing Factors

Because many factors are involved in child development, it
is no surprise that teachers have difficulty meeting the needs of students who
have learning disabilities. The field of education must make an effort to close
skill gaps in weak areas while continuing to build on areas of strength.
Regardless of the nature of the disability, educators must modify the
curriculum in order to meet the needs of students who experience difficulty in
certain academic areas.

In certain instances, slow development can be an indicator
of weak skills for some students. Smith (2004) acknowledged patterns of slow
maturation become noticeable at different stages and ages as the demands for
academic responsibilities increase. With the demand to meet standards, students
are held accountable for achieving academic progress. This responsibility alone
can be overwhelming and add to the underdevelopment of abilities to complete
tasks. Interventions should be available to model and teach children how to
advocate and recognize their own weaknesses and strengths.

Family and school environmental challenges can impact
existing disabilities as well as contribute to the onset of another disability
according to Smith (2004). Nutrition is a key factor in a child’s ability to
learn. When suffering from malnutrition, a child will experience difficulty in
concentrating and performing well in school. Culture also influences a child’s
ability to learn the required curriculum and is a key factor when the child’s
background does not include the same experiences as the norm. Students who are
from impoverished backgrounds run a greater risk for falling behind
academically. Children who are victims of unfavorable conditions face a greater
chance of becoming vulnerable to learning disabilities due to the stress of
uncontrollable environmental events. Pollutants can also contribute to leaning
disabilities and cause students to suffer from health difficulties. Finally,
classroom instruction can compound the learning disability if the educator is
not proactive in meeting the needs of the student. The overwhelming task of
meeting the needs can exacerbate the inability of students to make academic
progress. The family and environmental factors play key roles in determining if
a learning disability can be supported so that every child experiences academic

Patterns of Processing

Processing information is a complex challenge for students
with learning disabilities. Weaknesses in processing affects cognitive
abilities, style of learning, present knowledge, social skills abilities, and
motivation (2004). These areas are compromised due to the inability to know for
sure what students will learn and retain. There are four areas that affect a
student’s ability to learn and retain information that includes
visual-perceptual skills, language and phonological processing skills,
attention, and motor skills. Although no two individual students will
experience the same weaknesses, the inability to process information impacts
learning and requires interventions.


The contributing factors and patterns manifested in learning
disabilities run the gamut from brain injuries, underdevelopment, and
inheritability influences. Teacher awareness, in general, and cultural
competence, in particular, regarding ethnic/language minorities is crucial when
attempting to match curriculum to diverse students with various learning styles
i.e., the student achievement gap is lessened when teachers attend to language,
phonological-processing, attention, visual-perception and motor skills.


Plomin, R., DeFries, J. C., McClearn, G. E., & McGuffin,
P. (2001). Physiological Differences. In Smith (Ed.). Behavioral genetics. 4th
Edition (pp. 54-95). Syracuse University. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.

Smith, C. R. (2004). Learning disabilities: The interaction
of students and their environments. 5th Edition. Syracuse University. Boston:
Pearson Education, Inc.